Economic and Technological Changes
Several economic changes have altered employment and occupational patterns in the United States. A major change is the shift of jobs from manufacturing and agriculture to service industries and telecommunications. This shift has meant that some organizations have reduced the number of employees, while others scramble to attract and retain employees with different capabilities than previously needed. Additionally, pressures from global competitors have forced many U.S. firms to close facilities, adapt their management practices, increase productivity, and decrease labor costs in order to become more competitive. Finally, the growth of information technology, particularly that linked to the Internet, has led to many changes throughout organizations of all types.
Technology.caused Occupational Shifts
Projections of the growth in some jobs and decline in others illustrate the current shifts occurring in the U.S. economy on the next page lists occupations with both the largest number and percentage growth for the period ending in 2008. Most of the gastrointestinal occupations percentage-wise are related to information technology. The increase in technology jobs is due to the rapid growth of information technology, . such as databases, system design and analysis, and desktop publishing.